Sarah Cullum, head of climate security, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office: says evidence points to potential problems leading to food insecurity, increased migration and conflicts
Cullum: Defence planning perspective ... climate issues and delivering fuel costs in war zones costly and dangerous. In Afghanistan, costs of fuel are 10 times as much as in Britain.
Cullum: UK national security -- climate change will have a disproportionate impact on developing world.
Bernice Lee, research director, energy, environment and resource governance at Chatham House in London is speaking now
Lee: How is climate change going to change where we build -- how we consider engineering risks
Lee: Water is already affected driving investment across the world. Companies and businesses are looking at risk management and of course are more likely to invest in areas where there is a good water supply.
Lee: switching to forms of energy other than oil and gas does not mean that we do not have a supply problem, need to understand supply and security implications
Jeffrey Mazo, research fellow for environmental security and science policy, International Institute for Strategic Studies, is talking about security implications of climate change
Mazo: Arab unrest in the Middle East and North Africa was not climate related, but the approximate cause was -- climate was one of any number of interacting complex factors
Mazo: Dustbowl in U.S. in the 1930s resulted in migration on a massive scale.
Mazo: Which countries have the ability to adapt to climate shocks? The poorest countries, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, will have the most difficulties. ... Some countries could be "nudged off the path of development".
Mazo: Adaptation has to be part of the environment development agenda. ... Adaptation efforts must be applied on a state-by-state basis.
Dan Smith, secretary general, International Alert, chair, advisory group, United Nations Peacebuilding Fund speaks
Smith: Climate change interacts to exacerbate economic, political and social problems
Smith: Chain of consequences, people don't fight because the climate changes, they fight because of the affect of climate change. Such as in a monsoon affected area: people are less secure and they may migrate...
Smith: Risks are generally increasing. We need to think not only about conflicts and the wave of change in the Arab world.
Smith: Already 1.5 billion people are living in areas of risk ... we shouldn't just limit our perspective to conflicts that are to do with war, we should also consider results on megacities of gang violence
Smith: Bangladesh government - 20 million people will be displaced in the delta. Climate change has changed the coastline.
Smith: Get to core of issue: What kind of things need to be done? We routinely talk in terms of money -- all the talk and energy goes into where all the money will come from, but actually a lot can be done through small-scale actions. Remember the human scale in all of this.
Atrocity and Genocide Prevention talk beginning
Atrocity and Genocide Prevention - now speaking: Jennifer Walsh, co-Director Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC), and Prof of International Relations, University of Oxford
Moderator of genocide panel is Rachel Gerber of the Stanley Foundation. Speakers are Kyle Matthews, lead researcher, Will to Intervene Project, Montreal Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict and professor of international relations, University of Oxford. Kwesi Aning, head of Conflict Prevention Management and Resolution Department of the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana.
Jennifer Walsh: Defining the "Responsibility to Protect" (R2P):
R2P - responsibility of states to "protect" their populations from genocide, war crime, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity
Jennifer Welsh: Members of International community felt a mea culpa over Rwanda.
Welsh: The majority of genocides are committed within the context of armed conflict
Jennifer Walsh: Responsibility to Protect also includes an obligation to "Prevent" i.e. prevent mass atrocity from happening
Jennifer Walsh: Atrocity prevention and conflict prevention are two different concepts, but are often conflated
Jennifer Walsh: Not all mass atrocity crimes occur as part of armed conflict. 33% of mass atrocity crimes committed since 1945 have NOT occurred within the context of armed conflict